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April, 1893. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. Vol. viii, No. 4. 


this subject he will consider at some other 
time. However important these variations 
may be, we must agree, I think, with Martin, 
when he says in his ' Parole et Pensee ' : 

" Les habitants du Midi preTerent aux sons 
sourds d, 6, eu, &, les sons clairs a, o, eu, e ; 
dans le Nord de la France, c'est precisement 
le contraire, et nous ne voyons pas que, 
pour £tre plus harmonieux et plus sonore, le 
francais du Midi soit moins intelligible, moins 
correct que celui du Nord." 

Princeton University. 

Edwin S. Lewis. 


The Stanford Dictionary of Anglicised 
Words and Phrases. Edited for the Syndics 
of the University Press, by C. A. M. Fen- 
nell, D. Litt., etc. Cambridge: at the 
University Press, 1892. 4to, pp. xv, 826. 

The acceptance, eleven years ago, of a special 
bequest of ^"5000 made by Mr. J. F. Stanford, 
a London barrister, imposed upon the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge the responsibility of 
completing a dictionary, outline and basis for 
which were furnished in some part by the 
testator's own notes. The title of the resulting 
work indicates roughly its character. What 
hitherto has been consigned to a supplement 
or appendix, confessedly makeshift in char- 
acter, or attempted only in separate manuals, 
and that avowedly for catchpenny purposes, is 
here dignified as an object of special scholarly 

The editor selected, Dr. Fennel], was not 
given full discretionary power. A com- 
mittee 1 of preferred authority determined first 
the specific aims of the book, defined the special 
connotation of the term Anglicised, and drew 
up a scheme governing the matter of inclusion. 
The laxity of the definition is not such, unfortu- 
nately, as to temper properly the stringency of 
the scheme. The two do not work together, 
as they could have been made to do, to allow 
the editor liberty without permitting him 

Anglicised is defined as applying to words 
and phrases, (a) "borrowed and wholly or 

1 Rev. Profs. Mayor and Skeat, Prof. Bensly, Mr. Aldis 
Wright, and Dr. J. P. Postgate. 

partly naturalised"; (b) "used in English 
literature without naturalisation"; (c) "fa- 
miliarised by frequent quotation." The 
"scheme," that is, the committee's formal 
statement of its rulings regarding inclusion, is 
so confused by special exceptions and numer- 
ous conditioning notes, that we beg simply to 
give its content. While not professedly in- 
cluding technical terms, the ' Dictionary ' is to 
comprise, (1) all non-European words and 
phrases borrowed directly, 2 and all European, 
except French ; (2) all Latin and Greek phrases, 
and those words which retain their original 
form, or whose original form is found not 
earlier than 1470 ; (3) all French words and 
phrases which "retain a characteristic French 
pronunciation of one prominent syllable or 
more (!)," and all words of French origin 
brought in since 1470 and found in French form 
before 1612, or after that in italics. 

The main objects of the work are : — (1) to 
enable the English reader to find out the 
meaning and history of the foreign words and 
phrases, which occur so frequently in English 
literature ; (2) to register the increase of the 
English vocabulary from foreign sources since 
the introduction of printing; (3) to record all 
English words of foreign origin, which have 
retained or reverted to their native form. 

Here are two aims definitely announced, one 
popular and one scientific. This fact is accur- 
ately recognised in the book's make-up, about 
50$ of the items being, we are told, devoted 
to " the first object which is popular." The 
obvious comment must be made that much 
would have been gained by making the work 
purely scientific — yet this would have been an 
absurdity in the face of the ' New English 
Dictionary' and distinctly a violation of Mr. 
Stanford's wishes as inferred from his notes. 
The items they furnislw plainly indicate that 
he meant the work to be (in one relation) 
frankly popular — a record of foreign words 
and phrases in current use, including those 
partially naturalised. Had this single in- 
tention, and this only, been followed out, a 
work of real value for popular reference would 
have resulted, and moreover the lapse of only 
a half century or so would have sufficed to 

2 " With or without change of sound or form. 1 ' 

3 They are starred in the 'Dictionary.' 



April, 1893. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. Vol. vm, No. 4. 


render it of real scientific value. As it is, the 
work presented us is curiously full of error 
and inconsistency — useless relatively speaking 
for popular reference, and for scientific pur- 
poses interesting, rather than certainly instruc- 
tive — but a partial record of the fact of today, 
and a woefully incomplete one of the fact of 

The faults of the Scheme, notably those 
arising from its over-ingenuity, need no com- 
ment. — they become readily apparent when it 
is considered with respect to the aims of the 
* Dictionary ' as announced. We pass on then 
to a consideration of the work itself, and in 
doing so cannot refrain from a reference to its 
excellence in externals. The printed page 
could not be bettered. We discover but one 
typographical error, other than those in the 
errata — the accent is omitted in the word 
macramL Several slips in style occur. The 
words slresslessnessi andforcibilitys are used. 
It is safe to say they appear for the first and 
only time in any dictionary. "The editor's 
assistant," we are told " has displayed quite a 
genius for the kind of work." This use of the 
as a self-explanatory demonstrative is novel. 
" Gymnasium," it seems " has been Anglicised 
in Holland as gymnase." We wonder at this; 
even Maarten Maartens might scarcely venture 
so to enrich the English language. Under 
Frank, the phrase is used, "formed in 3 c, A. 
D." Ego etrexmeus is luminously explain- 
ed as "'I and my king' (according to the 
Latin order), the position giving no dignity to 
theego, as was supposed by Woolsey's critics." 
Endymion is 

"the name of a youth famous for beauty and 
capacity for sleep, with whom the moon-god- 
dess (Diana, Phoebe, Artemis) fell in love, and 
visited him on Mount Latmos." 

Cinque cento is defined as 

" It. ' five hundred,' a short way of expressing 
the period of Renaissance which began early 
in the century of which 1501 was the first 

Rowland's Maeassarisa.11 "oil largely advertis- 
ed." A crevasse is a " long vertical fissure in 
a glacier." Entasis is " a slight convexity of 
the shaft of a column." 15 

4 Introduction. 5 In definition of emphasis. 

6 Cf. Hainan, emphasis I, crapula, edition de luxe. 

In form and arrangement, there are numer- 
ous slight inconsistancies. Magnesium and 
■magnesia have separate headings, while lithi- 
um is included under lithia. Aesculapian, 
Egyptian, Florentine have separate articles, 
while American and others are included under 
their originals. Words are entered now in 
their foreign form (often unwarranted by 
quotation), now as naturalised;7 now in modern 
form, now in archaic. 8 Variant forms are 
given at one time at the beginning, at another 
at the end of the articles, sometimes are 
omitted,? sometimes have separate articles. «> 
In some cases important variants are not given 
separate references to their originals. 11 Such 
instances of carelessness are, however, neither 
numerous enough, nor of a character, materi- 
ally to affect the book's value. A quotation 
borrowed from the ' New English Dictionary ' 
is credited under benecarlo, but not under 
margoso. Under a number of nouns in trix, 
reference is made for no reason to the corre- 
sponding masculine forms ; under as great a 
number no such reference is made. Kalends 
is spelled with a capital ; ides and nones are 

It seems very questionable taste in a dic- 
tionary to call derisive attention to incorrect 
forms in the quotations by the particle sic. 
Moreover, this has almost always been done in 
quotations from old books 12 — in the case of 
errors of typography, not of scholarship. 

Abbreviations of book-names should have 
been included in the list of abbreviations. 
How many can decipher off-hand Howell, 
Fest, Let., and similar curtailments? This 
reminds us that there are more varieties of 
Latin in this ' Dictionary ' than one generally 
meets, — they are not, however, explained in 
the list of abbreviations. There is plain Lat., 
and Mod. Lat./s and New Lat., T 4 and Late 
Lat. ^5 and (upon one occasion) Bot. Lat. 1 * 

7 Cf. colombario, corbaccio, with Creese, crimson. Da- 
habieh is spelled differently from the original Arabian and 
every form in the quotations. 

8 Cf. cinnamon, crimson, etc . 

9 For example, demiurge, elicampane, cogniac, sinamome, 

10 For example, coucher, couchee. 

11 For example, emery. Catsup is not given a seperate 
reference, though the only quotation has that form. 

12 Epinetheus (sic) Howell, 1642, gymasia (sic) Holland, 
trans. Pliny, fiorituri, landsturm, etc. 

13 For example, Anglomania, megatherium, phantasma- 
goria.^ 14 For example, entozoa. 15 For example,/*?- se. 

16 See epidendron. 



April, 1893. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. Vol. viii, No. 4. 


Study reveals the fact that Mod. Lat. means 
the Latin spelling of a word newly coined 
from the Greek. 

In indexing phrases, first words have been 
taken as indices of place. This is excessively 
annoying to the reader. Moreover, it reduces 
the editor to the absurdity of placing the 
phrases beginning with le apart from those 
beginning with les, and worse still, those in /' 
apart from the la's and the le's. Of course, the 
simple way, and one considerate of the reader, 
would have been to index by letter-sequence, 
independent of word division. The way 
chosen was one convenient only for the editor 
himself. He had all his le's, la's, and so on, 
in separate lists convenient for checking. 

The ' Dictionary ' contains 12,798 articles, 
treating of 13,018 words and phases. The 
following facts are of interest. There are 2617 
French derivatives in original form, 3797 Latin, 
495 Greek (including naturalised forms), 1199 
Italian, 716 Spanish, 336 Hindoo, 225 Arabic, 
147 Turkish, 113 Celtic, 83 American Indian. 
It seems evident that the first letters of the 
' Dictionary ' were more carefully worked at 
than the latter. 1 ? Diacritical marks are not 
attempted as a rule ; stress, only, is marked ; 
It is surely to be regretted that the editor goes 
out of his way to pronounce the ch of chivalry 
soft. Is its proper and historical pronunciation 
a thing of the past? 

Etymologies are inserted as a rule, the In- 
troduction tells us, only when new light is af- 
forded. Evidently the editor could not resist 
many, for example those of orchid and bucca- 
neer, because of their interest and prettiness. 
The fabulous derivation of meringue is given 
a new lease of life. Ruelle is described as 
" Fr. lit ' bedside ' " ; literally, of course, it is 
nothing of the sort, but not going back too far, 
it was the space between a bed and the wall, 

17 For example, as regards inclusion. An average of the 
great dictionaries taking the letters by three's, gives a series 
of percentages which may be taken as a modulus. The Stan- 
ford series is given as denominator : 

14.70 20.05 
12.80 ir.*5 

21.06 9.79 

c, ; /, 

37.44 12.68 

4.61 .55 

15.15 4.00 9.27 
8.87 4.19 9.85 

2.59 -37 
The divergences are notable ; the first six letters, for ex. 
ample, occupy, as a rule, less than a third ; in the Stanford 
more than a half. 

not the bedside. The sense ' bedside ' resulted 
from this, and particularly (for a time) in Eng- 
land. Why necessarily should eureka ' be 
spelled heureka't The word's form testifies 
to the fact that it passed straight into common 
speech from the Greek original, without the 
intervention of Latin spelling. It may offend 
the ear of the classical scholar, but scarcely 
that of the student of English. What differ- 
ence is there, we might ask, between "Old It. 
farfalla," and the modern word? The editor 
puts the cart before the horse in an amusing 
way, when, in speaking of the word Negus, he 
suggests that Beresford's witty quotation from 

" Nor could his eye not ken 
Th' Empire of Negus. "18 

may have had something to do with its deri- 

Passing to the matter of inclusion, in order 
to give some idea of the surface error and in- 
consistency present in the book, we point out 
the omission of the following familiar words : 
foible, invalide, mackintosh, declasse', noc- 
turne, postiche, bugloss, borage, redowa, 
bestiarium, flux, pleineaire, remarque, 
zenith, nadir, Pulsatilla, scarlatina, mastiff, 
plaque, caniche, Bessemer, myopia, ogre, 
Pentecost, trochee, smilax, stramonium, 
Carrara, directrix, hypogeum,^ khismet, 
conte, pastel, rampant,™ acta,* 1 scaena. 

To emphasise this point, we compare the 
dictionary with itself. Of the following paired 
words, the italicised are admitted, the others 
are not : — empyema, empyreuma ; ample, 
simple ; amplitude, certitude, fortitude ; Ar- 
gand, Bunsen ; Asgard, Midgard, etc. ; bal 
pare, bal masque 1 , bal poudre'; Avatar, Kar- 
ma ; chylus, chymus ; hinterland, gymnasium, 
brodstudien, rathshaus, realschulen ; basso 
profondo, tenore robusto ; Devanagari, Pra- 

The editor handles certain questions regard- 
ing inclusion in the Introduction. Words in 
-or caused him much trouble. There are two 

18 Milton, ' Paradise Lost/ xi, 397, quoted by Beresford, 
'Miseries,' ii, 95 (5th ed). 

19 Though it occurs in the quotation under colombario, 
itself an obsolete word. 

20 Italicised by Ben Jonson. 

21 Common in the 16th century. 


2 33 

April, 1893. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. Vol. viii, No. 4. 


classes — Latin originals and English coinages. 
These could have been discriminated. Un- 
fortunately, some came in before 1470; those, 
of course, had to be excluded. It was a 
matter of special difficulty, and the voluntary 
readers evaded words of this character. His 
embarassment resulted in the curious decision 
to admit all words ending in or, whether 
Latin or not, which are on the sunny side of 
1470. It is only fair, he thinks, to the general 
reader, who might look up a word in or under 
the belief it was Latin. Why a reader would 
look up words like actor, enunciator, per- 
ambulator in this work, it is hard to imagine. 
The value of the ' Dictionary ' would not have 
been impaired, if they had all been omitted. 
As it is, numbers 22 are overlooked. No 
result of practical value is obtained, and the 
etymological difficulty might just as well have 
been left to Dr. Murray's slow, but sure, un- 

The decision to accept a presumption as 
certainty in the case of words of doubtful 
origin, Latin or French is rather unsatisfactory. 
It involves the throwing out of many words as 
adapted from the Latin, and not borrowed 
from the French. Rather than give a decided 
opinion in a matter so subtle, would it not 
have been better to state the doubt? In 
any case, why does not the reasoning applied 
to words in or apply here ? As regards vexing 
questions whether words m-ado are French or 
Italian, it need only be said that they are to 
be intelligently decided, as a rule, only by a 

Exotic words are excluded, excepting such 
names of vehicles, vessels, implements, coins, 
commodities, as seemed likely to be imported. 
Why then bota, abbatage, brial, intarsiatore, 
intarsiatura, landmannschaften? Geographi- 
cal names applied to varieties of an article are 
excluded, for example, Demerara (sugar). 
This ruling does not hold for laces and wines. 
The editor's taste in these matters is interest- 
ing. He shows a preference for point-lace of 
various sorts; as regards wine, we find Heid- 
siec, Beaune, Monte fiascione , Valdeponas, etc., 
but not Mumm, /.arose, and dozens of others, 

22 Reflector, enactor, professor, etc. 

23 The 'Stanford' is, by the way, corrected by aid of the 
' N. E. D.' as far as E — Every . 

for which quotations could have been readily 
furnished. Chianti is not given in its familiar 
English use as meaning a vin ordinaire of 
Italian growth. The best vintage of Burgundy 
is pointed out. Bordeau hammer is described 
as having been a customary comic phrase — a 
doubtful matter. Finally, if laces and wines 
are admitted, why not pottery and porcelain, 
other than del/, faience, majolica ? And why 
not cheeses ? 

Turning from the Introduction, we note 
curious contradictary rulings from the point of 
view of form. There has been nothing said 
of modern scientific coinages. We find a 
number included, 2 4 while hundreds quite as 
worthy are excluded. In the case of abio- 
genesis, and biogenesis, one cannot resist the 
malicious surmise that they were included in 
order that the editor might correct Huxley 
in his coining, a thing he is careful to do. 
Why should a number of words from the Latin 
in icus;*s alis, 26 anus, 2 ! inus,^> be admitted, and 
others be excluded, — and this quite irrespective 
of the question whether they came through the 
French or not, or were coinages by analogy ? 
Why are Americanise, Caesarise, and Adonise 
admitted, and their numerous analogues passed 
by ? Why are Caesarism, Euphuism, Guevar- 
ism admitted, and mesmerism, hypnotism 
idiotism, and alienism refused ? Why are 
scores of words from the French in er omitted, 
when numbers are given admission ? Why are 
freak-words like hocus-pocus, conundrum, 
dahlia, gardenia, balloonomania, circumbend- 
ibus included, and others like alarum, panjan- 
drum, omnium gatherutn, sanitarium, and the 
interesting nondescript tantrum, omitted? 

If now we take up special classes of words, 
grouped together by a relationship of meaning, 
we come upon further inconsistency and 
omission. Of familiar terms in everyday life 
there are plenty ; for example, barege, fou- 
lard, crepe lisse, filoselle, souchong, cru, 
sauce piquante. With these compare omissions; 
for example, chiffon (fabric) lingerie, gants de 
SuSde, crepe de Chine, jersey, balayeuse, 

24 apodiabolosis, exo- and endo-skeleton, exo- and endos- 
mosis, melodeon, Anglomania, Anglophobia, etc. 

25 scorbutic, Bacchic, Gallic. 

26 Bacchanal, Iscariotical, 

27 Aesculapian, Caesarean, Egyptian, Vesuvian (.') 

28 Alpine. 


2 35 

April, 1893. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. Vol. viii, No. 4. 


oolong, brut, sauce tartare, fromage. The 
famous historical terms mervilleuse and z'tz- 
croyable are not given. Marron, a firework, is 
noticed under the Italian word for chestnut, 
but the ubiquitous sweetmeat in its familiar 
French form, either when glacS or dis- 
guise", receives no notice. The fruit-growers 
tasche and the billiard-player's massi and the 
printer's stet should have been given a place. 
Jocoseria, voodoo, japonaiseries, les de~sagr£e- 
ables, dSbardeur, cloches, bad,fjeld,fels, hof, 
wald, and the geographical prefixes Ml- and 
nan-, should have been explained as by strict 
analogy with words included. 3 9 Rastaquourei" 
and croquis suggest two classes of French 
slang-words, only a few of which are admitted 
and those, like these, rare. Famous names, 
used as type-names, are included ; the selection 
made is a curious one ; cf. Egeria, Buridan, 
Aeneas, Brantdme, Alnaschar, Astolpho, Ro- 
sinante, Nathaniel, admitted with Electra, 
Duns Scotus, Calypso, Dido, Voltaire, Sinbad, 
Aladdin, Roland, Sancho Panzo, Daniel, 
omitted, — not to speak of troops of others. 
Often admission of a name depended, ap- 
parently, simply upon the chance discovery of 
a single quotation showing its use as a type- 
name, but in the case of Atalanta and As- 
tolpho, the names are not used in the quo- 
tations as type-names at all. Proceeding and 
noting as omissions only words that should 
have been admitted by strict analogy, we find 
of terms in Music3r over a hundred omissions, 
general scientific terms, 32 140, Medecine,33 131, 
Astronomy34 10, Architecture35 24, Philoso- 
phy36 14, Geology37 10, Botany3 8 24, terms 

29 Taking such as suggested themselves, we note in all 43 

30 Miss Braddon ; but where are her countless others, and 
Miss Edwards', Miss Thackeray's, Hook's, Albert Smith's, 
Lever's and Lover's ? 

31 For example, motet, nocturne, virelai, prose, quatre 
mains, etc. 

32 For example, aardvark, copperas, coccyx, flux, congar, 
echelon (lens) etc. 

33 For example, vagina, triceps, variola, risus sardonicus, 
suspiria, occiput, etc. 

34 For example, Saros, zenith, nadir, etc. 

35 For example, clerestory, corbel, donjon. 

36 For example, cornutus, verstand, verkun/t, empiri- 
cism, etc. 

37 For example, jade, corundum, cinnabar, etc . 

38 For example, horae canonicae, cotta, soutane, ante- 
pendium (cf. anteport), etc. 

ecclesiastical39 16, Art4° 20. As special in- 
stances, we might note that many names of 
muscles in or are admitted, as many excluded ; 
certain names of organ-stops and terms in 
dancing and cooking are admitted, others 
excluded ; extremely unusual botanical names 
are often admitted, others (not in our list) ex- 
cluded. Admission seems to have been the 
result simply of hitting hap-hazard on a quo- 
tation. That the intricacies of the ' Scheme ' 
are in part responsible for this, there is no 
doubt ; undoubtedly it complicated matters in 
a way that produced general confusion. But 
how are we to take a case of this sort : — the 
month-name, January, is in, February is not ; 
March is in, April not ; May, June, and July 
are in, August not. It is absurd to pretend an 
etymological reason for this. Again, why 
should words without definition or derivation 
be admitted, even though nothing in the quo- 
tation justifies their admission; for example : 

"She left the Aeolian harp in the window . . . 
. . and coiled herself up among lace pillows 
and eider blemos."* 1 

This word looks at least like a respectable 
alien, but the matter becomes ridiculous in a 
case like the following : — " There are plenty of 
sea-gods little better than salt-water kelpies 
or marine bunyips."^ The Celtic word kelpie 
is not included, by the way (and in passing, is 
there such a thing as a salt-water one ?). This 
reminds us of the fact that in innumerable 
cases anglicised words found in quotations in 
the 'Dictionary' itself, have not been included, 
for example, troll and nixie under Alp,a night- 
mare. Of four words in quotation under 
bianco, three are indexed. Three words in 
quotation under escu are not included. Petard 
is not admitted, even on Shakspeare's authori- 
ty, though it occurs in a curious variant form 
{Peter) in a quotation under blunderbus ; surely 
it is no whit farther from its original. 43 From 

39 For example, mezzo-rilievo, pleine aire, siccatif, Ana- 
dyomene, etc. 

40 C. Kingsley, 'Yeast.' 

41 Athenaeum, Jan. 14, 1888, p. 47. 

42 Under embrocado, mandrita ; under chorion, amnios ; 
under cicada, tettinx. 

43 Under Adam, we have Adamical, Adamitical, Adamist, 
Adamite, Adam's apple. Under America, American, 
Americanism, and (mirabile dictu!) Americomania. Surely 
this is a work of supererogation. 



April, 1893. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. Vol. viii, No. 4. 


' Quits ' is taken the following : — ' Is this 
Peissenberg what you call an alp or aim .... 
is it one of those pasture grounds on the 
mountains . . . .?" Alp is here illustrated as 
meaning a mountain pasture. In the first 
place the word is purely exotic ; in the second 
there is no such German word, it properly 
being Alpe ; in the third it is dialectical (dialect 
forms are professedly not admitted); in the 
fourth the word aim which follows — the 
regular German word — is not admitted, though 
resting on equal authority of quotation with 
the word alp. 

By way of dismissal to this part of the sub- 
ject, we would ask a question. Should not the 
scheme of a dictionary of this character have 
been made at least sufficiently broad to include 
words like eglantine, ergot, granite, terrier? 
Or take the word etiolate — has it anything but 
a foreign flavor? Yet though this useful word 
is omitted, the exotic Spaniolate exactly simi- 
lar in form is included. 

Just what the character of the definitions 
should be in the case of a work like the 
' Stanford ' is, perhaps, a question. Had its eye 
been single, that is scientific, definitions would 
have been as a rule non-essential. Unfortu- 
nately, deference for its popular aims carried 
the day. The definitions are, as a result, 
amusingly circumspect about trifles, elaborate 
and diffuse in their treatment of even the sim- 
plest matters, and often discursively instructive 
in directions that carry quite out of the dic- 
tionary's province. Of this the Saturday Review 
seems rather to approve. It asks in admir- 
ation if anyone would ever have supposed 
that Mexican caviare was made of the eggs 
of a fly. Apart from the fact that there is no 
such thing as Mexican caviare, and that the 
authority quoted by the ' Stanford ' employs 
the term only because the Mexican ahuauhtli 
is used in a way similar, to the European 
delicacy, it is quite needless to say that the 
' Dictionary ' had no call to fill the place 
either of an unabridged or an encyclopaedia. 
Eleven several headings were not necessary 
under the word accent, or under color thirteen. 
The important point is when and in what form 
these words were adopted — derived meanings 
are not ' Anglicised ' ; the children and grand- 
children of a naturalised foreigner are not 

aliens whose names must be filed on the 
Court-lists. What reader will turn to the 
' Stanford ' for an exhaustive discussion of the 
senses in which the word accent is used, or for 
instruction regarding the laws of stress and 
accent in English speech ? Why should we 
learn here that color is a " particular variety of 
appearance," depending on the reflection of 
light, or the novel and interesting information 

" Sometimes white and black are regarded as 
being without colour, according to which view 
only the results of various decompositions of 
white light are colours " ? 

Military and architectural meanings are 
added under certain terms and not under 
others. Under many words, derivatives are 
added, a thing which the Introduction ex- 
pressly said would not be done. 44 Album is 
given as "American (sic) for visitor's book "; 
this bold American innovation is not illustrated 
by a quotation. Agitator is defined as "a 
shaker in a physical sense." Lasquenet is 
adequately described as a game in which one 
player holds the bank and the others play 
against him. Bel Hage is defined as "best 
storey, first floor. N. B. belle Stage is wrong." 

The slight touch of cynicism in the following 
definition is probably not intended. 

" Chloe ; name given by Horace to a young 
woman who is supposed to slight his addresses 
(Od., 1.23, iii, 26), hence used in modern poetry 
as the fictitious name of any young woman." 

This is probably only naiveti, as other defi- 
nitions show : — 

"Don Juan, Sp. 'Sir John ' the name of a 
hero of Spanish romance, dramatised in Italy 
and England,45 represented as the seducer of 
a lady (or many ladies) of good birth, and as a 
murderer, and as being eventually taken alive 
down to Hell. The well known Don Juan of 
Byron is a mere frivolous libertine." 

Double entendre is 

"a word or phrase used in a double sense, one 
of which is generally innocent, while the other 
is more or less unbecoming." 

Encore is " often heard as Cawl" To com- 
pare is 

" to give viva v6ce or in writing, the degrees 
of comparison of any adjective. For instance, 

44 Is Molifere unworthy of remembrance ? 

45 Cf. baggage. 

ir 9 


April, 1893. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. Vol. viii, No. 4. 


a teacher or examiner says ' Compare much.' 
Ans : ' Much, more, most.' " 

Definitions that involve real error are not 
infrequent. We note one particularly which 
is, by the way, quoted from the ' New English 
Dictionary.' The item is as follows : 

" Bague sb : Fr: ring, brooch, trinket, 1475. 
Medea tooke alle the most richest Jewels and 
bagues portatif, Caxton, Jason, 106." 

If the definition stands, Caxton then meant to 
say Medea took all the richest jewels and 
rings that could be carried. Bagues here, as 
the reader has perceived, is used in its regular 
Old French meaning^ of goods, chattels, 
bundles — "such goods as could be carried." 
The definition of the ' New English Dictionary' 
is undoubtedly wrong. Actualiti is defined as 
" real existence, reality opposed to potential 
or to imaginary existence." Both quotations 
given show the error here made, though in one 
the word is used in its abstract, in the other in 
its concrete, sense. One is from Thackeray : — 
" We are not going to praise it ; it wants vigor 
. . . and what you call actualiti." The other 
is from the Athetuzum, "French dramatists 
lose little time in the production of actualites." 
The word of course is artist's slang. Pre- 
cisely the opposite mistake is made in the case 
of morbidezza, which is defined as used by 
artists, while its use in its primitive sense is 
passed by. Carelessness appears in a definition 
following one just spoken of. The quotation 
is from Nathaniel Fairfax: "God's being is 
such altogether in a readiness or actualiter :" 
Here actualiter is defined as an adverb, when 
it is plainly the substantive, =nunc ipsum, res 
ipsa, a common word in late philosophical 
Latin, and familiar to every reader of Sir 
Thomas Browne. 

The following moralising definitions display 
a somewhat misdirected energy. Battue, " an 
unsportsmanlike butchery of game " ; Boudoir 

" Fr. lit. a place to sulk in, bonder ; origi- 
nally a private apartment where a man could 
study or meditate without interruption, now a 
private retiring room, where a lady can be 
alone or receive her intimate friends. Dic- 
tionaries are polite enough to add the idea of 
elegance to the definition, but this quality 
depends upon the taste of the occupier." 

46 For example, dotninicin, linctits, literator. 

Passing now to the matter of quotations, it 
is only fair to say that the ' Stanford ' puts on 
record a large number of valuable quotations. 
At the same time there is a lack of system, 
completeness, and consistency, as marked 
have as elsewhere. Several hundred carefully 
selected books have been read we are told, for 
the purpose of collecting the literary materials 
upon which the best part of this work is based. 
We repeat with increased emphasis that a 
detailed list should have been given. 

As concerns authorities in general, it may 
first be noted that while it is interesting to 
have a minute made of even a small part of 
the foreign words and blumenphrasen of the 
sixteenth and seventh centuries, it is impossi- 
ble to regard the greater number of these as 
in any sense anglicised — the editor indeed 
might have known how impossible it was in 
any case to " round in " all the innumerable 
exoticisms, lugged by scores into the polite 
speech and the literature of those periods. 
As it is, we wonder at his choice of authorities. 
Howells and Harvey are names often seen, 
but Lyly, Browne, Fuller, scarcely ever 
appear. The Latin terms and phrases in 
Dryden's ' Essay on Dramatick Poetrie ' are 
actually, apparently, entirely unnoticed. Har- 
vey, the vain and quarrelsome pedant, whose 
pages are glanced into by perhaps one person 
a year, is often referred to — while a famous 
classic, and one constantly read, like Sir 
Thomas Brown's ' Religio Medici' is passed 
by completely. The first half dozen words 
and phrases, therefrom taken at random, 
were not to be discovered in the ' Dictionary.' 
It is surprising to find George Augustus Sala 
appealed to again and again as authority for 
the standing of anglicised French. It is the 
exotic words and phrase, not the standard, 
which find place in the fashionable novel. 
Many references are made to what is nothing 
better than ephemeral trash. For example, 
we find the word aasvogel on authority of 
Haggard's 'Jess.' Hinterland, Schwarmerei, 
and other German words, are given on the 
single authority of the Athenczum where 
moreover they are used in quotation, — Brod- 
studien similarly on the strength of the Satur- 
day Review, and Denkmal on that of Echo, a 
publication which certainly has not made much 

24 f 

April, 1893. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. Vol. viii, No. 4. 


noise in the world. Words like Weltschmerz 
and Zeitgeist may be considered as anglicised, 
but those above mentioned certainly possess 
no such claim. 

Affiche is given as having been anglicised in 
"the 14, 15 cc"; no quotation is brought 
forward in proof. Allegator is marked rare — 
a fact borne out by the absence of a quotation. 
We note several such cases.47 

A rather amusing error is to be found under 
girasole 2 - defined as a sunflower ; the only 
quotation given is from Kane : — "in the midst 
of which like a large girasole flashes the round 
sun." Only a desire to find an English ana- 
logue for the French girasole could have 
caused this interpretation of Kane's meaning. 
He refers of course to the girasole, the fire- 
opal. So undoubtedly in an Arctic atmos- 
phere the sun would look— certainly would not 
"flash like a sunflower." 

The quotation "A besognio, a cocoloch, as 
thou art" is given by a most amusing error 
under cockroach. Cocoloch is simply Old 
French coqueluche, a hoodwearer, rustic, 

With regard to the phrases and familiar 
quotations from foreign tongues, little need be 
said. Nothing could be more curious than the 
ruling which has governed admittance and 
exclusion in this particular. Long and perfect- 
ly unfamiliar phrases from sixteenth century 
authors are admitted, while most familiar 
daily quotations are excluded, — and vice versa. 
The "English reader" may better betake 
himself to any cheap handbook than to this 
specially prepared dictionary. The omission 
of famous phrases that have become in trans- 
lation a part of the texture of daily speech, 
seems particularly unfortunate, for example, 

soufflet le chaud et le froid ; c'est le com- 
mencement de la fin ; consuetudo est secunda 
natura ; fortunae filius ; les larmes a la 
voix ; le style est Phomme meme ; olet lucer- 
nam ; splendidia vitia ;4 8 vivere est cogitare 
(Cicero); major ceremoniarum ; imitatores, 
servas pecus ; giovine canti, diavolo vecchio ; 
gens de lettres ; flux de bouche ; a capite ad 

47 That is, Tertullian's famous phrase is omitted, while 
splendidia peccata. of nameless origin is included. 

48 Experto crede is given, but Virgils 1 phrase is not. 

calcem ; facta non verba; aide toi, le ciel 
P aider a. 

So also familiar legal words and maxims : — 
consuetudo est altera lex ; actus me invito, 
f actus non est mens actus ; incerta pro nullis 
habetur; non constat; occasio facitfurem; res 
judicata ; ipso jure ; mare apertum ; multitu- 
dinem decern faciunt ; litera scripta manet ; 
jus possessionis. 

It seems unfortunate that explanations of 
the historical and other associations of the 
phrases have so generally been omitted. 
Sauve qui pent is explained but the ' Diction- 
ary ' is not even at pains to say that Semper 
eadem was the motto of Elizabeth, or refer to 
the occasion which makes the words Esto 
perpetua truly memorable, while in the case 
of pour encourager les autres and Solvitur 
ambulando, the explanation, which is abso- 

\ lutely necessary, is not given. 

I From the one hundred and forty omissions 
of familiar phrases and quotations noted, we 

] select the following examples : — labor omnia 
vincit improbus ; Caesar em vehis Caesar isque 
fortunam ; certum quia impossibile ; cherchez 
la femme ; experto credite ;49 clarior e tene- 
bris ; in hoc segno vences ; la genie, c'est la 
patience ; Malbrouck s'en va fen guerre ; 
mehr licht ; ora et labora ; anch' io sono 
pittore ; -non Angli sed angeli ; sic transit 
gloria mundi ; allez vous en; a la belle 
itoile ; la donna est mobile, etc. 

Enough however of mere fault-finding. We 
may conclude as follows. As a book of 
popular reference, the ' Stanford Dictionary ' 
will never fill a large sphere of usefulness ; 
the English reader will find it better in every 
case to consult the ' Imperial ' and the ' Centu- 
ry.' For the philologian, there is much 
included that is of value ; he will speedily 
determine the books equation of error, and 
use it to some profit, until the ' New English 
Dictionary ' is complete. To sum up, it will 
always be a work of which to say, "Perhaps 
you will find what you want in the ' Stanford,' " 
rather than instantly and conclusively, " Go to 
the 'Stanford.'" 

Clarence Griffin Child. 
Johns Hopkins University.